Student Notes: Paradise Lost – Book by John Milton

Paradise Lost book notes

Student Notes – Paradise Lost by John Milton


Paradise Lost, written by John Milton and published in 1667, is an epic poem that explores the fall of humankind, the nature of good and evil, and the conflict between God and Satan. This student note provides an analysis of the poem, including an introduction, setting, historical context, characters, plot summary, key themes and symbolism, analysis and discussion points, and a conclusion. Set in Heaven, Hell, and Earth, Paradise Lost delves into profound theological and philosophical concepts while showcasing Milton’s poetic brilliance.




  • The realm of God, angels, and divine beings characterized by harmony and order.
  • Represents perfection, purity, and obedience.


  • The realm of Satan and the fallen angels, characterized by chaos, darkness, and suffering.
  • Symbolizes rebellion, corruption, and punishment.


  • The physical world where Adam and Eve reside in the Garden of Eden before their fall.
  • Represents the beauty and potential of creation.


Historical Context:

  • Paradise Lost was written during a time of political and religious upheaval in England.
  • Milton’s work reflects his own political and religious beliefs, including his support for republicanism and his exploration of theological questions.




  • The central character and antagonist of the poem, once the most beautiful angel in Heaven.
  • Symbolizes pride, rebellion, and the desire for power.


  • The omnipotent and benevolent ruler of Heaven.
  • Represents justice, mercy, and authority.

Adam and Eve:

  • The first human beings created by God and placed in the Garden of Eden.
  • Symbolize innocence, temptation, and the fall of humanity.


Plot Summary:

  • Paradise Lost begins with Satan’s rebellion against God and his expulsion from Heaven.
  • Satan, determined to seek revenge, tempts Adam and Eve to disobey God, leading to their expulsion from the Garden of Eden.
  • The poem explores the consequences of their fall, including the introduction of sin, suffering, and mortality into the world.
  • It ends with a glimpse of the promise of redemption through the birth of Jesus Christ.


Key Themes and Symbolism:

The Fall of Humankind:

  • Paradise Lost examines the fall of Adam and Eve from their state of innocence and the consequences of their disobedience.
  • Explores themes of temptation, free will, and the human condition.

Good and Evil:

  • The poem explores the nature of good and evil, portraying the struggle between God and Satan.
  • Raises questions about the existence of evil and the role of suffering in the world.

Redemption and Salvation:

  • Paradise Lost offers glimpses of hope and the possibility of redemption through the sacrifice of Jesus Christ.
  • Explores the themes of forgiveness, mercy, and the power of divine grace.


Analysis and Discussion Points:

  • Milton’s portrayal of Satan as a complex and charismatic figure.
  • The exploration of gender roles and the depiction of Eve’s agency and culpability.
  • The significance of language and poetic form in conveying complex theological ideas.



Paradise Lost by John Milton is a monumental work of literature that delves into profound theological and philosophical questions. Through vivid imagery, poetic language, and intricate characterization, Milton explores the fall of humankind, the nature of good and evil, and the eternal struggle between God and Satan. The poem’s themes of temptation, free will, redemption, and the human condition continue to resonate with readers, provoking discussions on the nature of morality, the complexities of faith, and the enduring power of literature. Paradise Lost remains an iconic and influential masterpiece that invites readers to ponder the profound mysteries of life, faith, and the human spirit.

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