Student Notes: The Phantom of the Opera – Book by Gaston Leroux

The Phantom of the Opera book notes

Student Notes – The Phantom of the Opera by Gaston Leroux


The Phantom of the Opera, written by Gaston Leroux and published in 1910, is a Gothic novel that combines elements of mystery, romance, and horror. This student note provides an analysis of the novel, including an introduction, setting, historical context, characters, plot summary, key themes and symbolism, analysis and discussion points, and a conclusion. Set in the Paris Opera House, the story follows the haunting presence of the mysterious Phantom, who becomes obsessed with the young soprano, Christine Daaé.



The Paris Opera House:

  • The primary setting of the novel, known for its grandeur and opulence.
  • Represents the world of music, art, and performance.

The Phantom’s Lair:

  • Located beneath the Opera House, a secret and labyrinthine underground chamber.
  • Symbolizes the hidden, dark, and supernatural forces at play.


Historical Context:

  • The Phantom of the Opera was published during the Belle Époque, a period of cultural and artistic flourishing in France.
  • The novel reflects the fascination with the Gothic genre during this time, as well as the growing interest in psychological exploration.



The Phantom (Erik):

  • The mysterious and disfigured protagonist, who hides beneath a mask.
  • Represents obsession, desire, and a longing for acceptance.

Christine Daaé:

  • A young and talented soprano, the object of the Phantom’s affection.
  • Symbolizes purity, innocence, and artistic potential.

Raoul, Vicomte de Chagny:

  • Christine’s childhood friend and love interest.
  • Represents chivalry, bravery, and the embodiment of the romantic hero.


Plot Summary:

  • The novel follows the events at the Paris Opera House, where strange and supernatural occurrences disrupt the performances.
  • The Phantom, deeply in love with Christine, manipulates events to ensure her success and attempts to control her life.
  • A love triangle emerges as Raoul tries to rescue Christine from the clutches of the Phantom.
  • The climax involves a dramatic confrontation between the Phantom, Christine, and Raoul.


Key Themes and Symbolism:

Beauty and Appearance:

  • The novel explores society’s obsession with physical beauty and the consequences of societal rejection based on appearance.
  • The Phantom’s disfigurement highlights the theme of inner versus outer beauty.

Obsession and Control:

  • The Phantom’s obsession with Christine represents the destructive nature of unchecked desires and the desire for control.
  • Examines the boundaries between love and possession.

Art and Performance:

  • The novel delves into the transformative power of art, particularly music and opera.
  • Explores the sacrifices and pressures faced by artists in pursuit of their craft.


Analysis and Discussion Points:

  • The exploration of the duality of the Phantom’s character, portraying both sympathy and terror.
  • The significance of the Opera House as a microcosm of society, with its hierarchy, ambition, and hidden desires.
  • The role of music and its ability to evoke emotions and transcend boundaries.



The Phantom of the Opera by Gaston Leroux is a captivating Gothic novel that explores themes of love, obsession, and the power of art. Set in the enchanting world of the Paris Opera House, the novel weaves a tale of mystery, romance, and tragedy. Through the complex characters of the Phantom, Christine, and Raoul, Leroux delves into the human psyche and raises thought-provoking questions about beauty, obsession, and the price of unrequited love. The novel’s enduring popularity is a testament to its ability to captivate readers with its atmospheric setting, gripping plot, and exploration of timeless themes. The Phantom of the Opera remains an iconic work of literature, inviting readers to confront their own desires, fears, and the complexities of the human heart.

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