Student Notes: The Stranger – Book by Albert Camus

The Stranger book notes

Student Notes – The Stranger by Albert Camus


The Stranger, written by Albert Camus and published in 1942, is a philosophical novel that explores themes of existentialism, alienation, and the absurdity of human existence. Set in colonial Algeria, the story follows Meursault, an emotionally detached and apathetic protagonist who becomes entangled in a series of events leading to a shocking act of violence. These student notes provide a comprehensive overview of the key elements, themes, and characters in The Stranger, along with analysis and discussion points for deeper exploration and understanding.


The Absurdity of Existence:

  • The Absurd Condition: Camus introduces the concept of the “absurd,” where human life is devoid of inherent meaning or purpose, and individuals must confront the absurdity of their existence.
  • Meursault’s Indifference: Meursault’s lack of emotional engagement and his indifference to societal norms highlight the absurdity of human behavior and the struggle to find meaning in a seemingly meaningless world.


Themes and Symbolism:

  • Existentialism: The novel embodies key existentialist themes, such as the individual’s search for meaning and the confrontation of life’s inherent absurdity.
  • Alienation and Outsider Status: Meursault is depicted as an outsider, disconnected from the conventions and expectations of society, which further heightens his sense of alienation and isolation.
  • Truth and Authenticity: The Stranger raises questions about truth and authenticity, challenging conventional notions of honesty and the consequences of deviating from societal expectations.


Character Analysis:

  • Meursault: The protagonist and narrator, Meursault, is an enigmatic figure who embodies the absurdity and existentialist themes of the novel. His detachment and lack of emotion both fascinate and disturb the reader.
  • Marie: Marie, Meursault’s girlfriend, represents an attachment to the physical world and traditional societal values. Her presence highlights the contrast between Meursault’s indifference and the desire for normalcy.
  • Raymond: Raymond, Meursault’s neighbor and acquaintance, plays a significant role in the narrative, serving as a catalyst for the events that unfold.


Camus’ Writing Style:

  • Minimalism and Objectivity: Camus’ writing style is characterized by its simplicity, objectivity, and lack of sentimentality. This style enhances the novel’s themes of detachment and existential absurdity.
  • Descriptive Imagery: Camus employs vivid and evocative descriptions, particularly in the novel’s climactic scenes, heightening the sense of tension and impact.


Interpretations and Significance:

  • The Absurd and Existentialism: The Stranger is often interpreted as a quintessential work of existentialist literature, exploring themes of the absurd, individual freedom, and the search for meaning.
  • Critique of Society: Camus’ novel also serves as a critique of societal norms, conventions, and the consequences of nonconformity.
  • Moral Responsibility: The moral ambiguity surrounding Meursault’s actions raises questions about the nature of guilt, judgment, and personal responsibility.



The Stranger is a powerful and thought-provoking novel that explores existentialist themes of absurdity, alienation, and the search for meaning in an indifferent world. Albert Camus’ unique narrative style and philosophical exploration continue to resonate with readers, inviting introspection and contemplation. By engaging with the student notes provided, readers can delve deeper into the themes, symbolism, and characters of The Stranger, gaining a greater understanding of Camus’ philosophical insights and the enduring significance of this seminal work of literature.

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