Student Notes: The Metamorphosis – Book by Franz Kafka

The Metamorphosis book notes

Student Notes – The Metamorphosis by Franz Kafka


The Metamorphosis, written by Franz Kafka and published in 1915, is a profound and unsettling novella that explores themes of alienation, identity, and the absurdity of human existence. These student notes provide a comprehensive analysis of the novella, including an introduction, setting, historical context, characters, plot summary, key themes and symbolism, analysis and discussion points, and a conclusion. Kafka’s exploration of the protagonist’s transformation into an insect challenges conventional notions of self and raises thought-provoking questions about the human condition.



  • The novella is primarily set in the apartment of the Samsa family in an unnamed European city.
  • The confined and oppressive nature of the apartment mirrors the psychological state of the protagonist, Gregor Samsa.


Historical Context:

  • The Metamorphosis was written during the early 20th century, a time of political and social upheaval, industrialization, and the rise of existential philosophy.
  • Kafka’s work reflects the anxieties and disorientation of the era and captures the alienation and absurdity of modern life.



Gregor Samsa:

  • The protagonist of the novella, Gregor wakes up one morning to find himself transformed into a giant insect. He represents the individual struggling against societal expectations and the loss of identity.

Mr. Samsa:

  • Gregor’s father, Mr. Samsa embodies traditional authority and the pressure of financial responsibility.

Mrs. Samsa:

  • Gregor’s mother, Mrs. Samsa initially shows compassion for Gregor but gradually becomes distant and repulsed by his transformation.

Grete Samsa:

  • Gregor’s sister, Grete initially takes care of Gregor but eventually distances herself from him and his condition.


Plot Summary:

  • The novella begins with Gregor waking up to find himself transformed into a monstrous insect. He struggles to come to terms with his new form and the limitations it imposes on him.
  • Gregor’s family initially attempts to care for him, but their attitudes shift over time, and they come to see him as a burden.
  • Gregor becomes increasingly isolated and neglected, and his physical transformation mirrors his emotional and psychological alienation from society.
  • The story reaches its climax when Gregor dies, prompting his family to feel both relief and a sense of liberation.


Key Themes and Symbolism:

Alienation and Isolation:

  • The theme of alienation is central to the novella. Gregor’s physical transformation reflects his emotional and psychological estrangement from the world around him.

Identity and Self-Worth:

  • The novella explores the concept of identity and the loss of self. Gregor’s transformation challenges his sense of self-worth and his place in society.

The Absurdity of Existence:

  • Kafka presents a world in which inexplicable and irrational events occur. The absurdity of Gregor’s transformation and his family’s reactions highlight the arbitrary nature of life and the human struggle to find meaning.

Symbolism of the Insect:

  • The insect symbolizes Gregor’s dehumanization and marginalization. It represents his diminished status in society and his inability to communicate or connect with others.


Analysis and Discussion Points:

  • The role of family and the dynamics of power and responsibility within the Samsa household.
  • The exploration of guilt, shame, and the fear of otherness.
  • The influence of societal expectations and the pressure to conform.
  • The use of symbolism and Kafka’s distinctive writing style.



The Metamorphosis by Franz Kafka is a haunting and introspective novella that delves into the depths of human alienation and the existential crisis of identity. Through the lens of Gregor Samsa’s transformation, Kafka raises profound questions about the nature of humanity and the impact of societal pressures on individuality. The novella’s enduring relevance continues to captivate readers and spark discussions about the complexities of the human condition.

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