Student Notes: Lord of the Flies – Book by William Golding

Lord of the Flies student notes

Student Notes – Lord of the Flies by William Golding


Lord of the Flies, written by William Golding and published in 1954, is a compelling and allegorical novel that explores the descent into savagery and the inherent darkness within human nature. These student notes provide a comprehensive analysis of the novel, including an introduction, setting, historical context, characters, plot summary, key themes and symbolism, analysis and discussion points, and a conclusion. Golding’s exploration of the fragile balance between civilization and savagery makes Lord of the Flies a timeless and thought-provoking piece of literature.



  • The novel is set on a deserted tropical island in the midst of a nuclear war.
  • The island is uninhabited, devoid of adult supervision, and provides a blank canvas for the boys’ primitive instincts to manifest.


Historical Context:

  • Lord of the Flies was written in the aftermath of World War II, a time marked by the atrocities of war and the realization of the potential for darkness within humanity.
  • Golding’s novel reflects the loss of faith in the progress of civilization and explores the impact of isolation on human behavior.




  • The protagonist and elected leader of the group. Ralph represents civilization, order, and democratic ideals.


  • The primary antagonist, Jack represents the impulse for power and savagery. He forms a rival faction and gradually descends into brutality.


  • Ralph’s loyal and intellectual companion, Piggy symbolizes reason, rationality, and civilization. He is often ridiculed by the other boys.


  • A sensitive and contemplative character, Simon embodies spirituality and represents an innate goodness that is ultimately destroyed by the inherent evil on the island.


Plot Summary:

  • The novel begins with a group of British boys stranded on an uninhabited island after their plane crashes. Initially, they attempt to establish order and create a society governed by rules and cooperation.
  • However, as time passes and their fears and desires surface, the boys descend into chaos and violence. The struggle for power between Ralph and Jack intensifies, leading to the disintegration of civilization and the loss of innocence.


Key Themes and Symbolism:

Civilization versus Savagery:

  • The central theme of the novel revolves around the inherent conflict between civilization and savagery. The boys’ descent into savagery symbolizes the fragile nature of civilization when confronted with the absence of authority and societal constraints.

Loss of Innocence:

  • The boys’ isolation on the island exposes them to their innermost fears and desires, leading to the loss of their innocence. This theme highlights the corrupting influence of power and the capacity for evil within individuals.

Fear and the Beast:

  • The boys’ fear of a mythical beast on the island represents their deep-seated fears and the darkness lurking within themselves. The beast becomes a symbol of their own inner savagery and the destructive forces at play.

The Conch Shell:

  • The conch shell, initially used to establish order and maintain democracy, symbolizes civilization and the power of collective decision-making. As the boys lose respect for the rules, the conch’s authority diminishes.


Analysis and Discussion Points:

  • The significance of the novel’s title and the symbolism behind the “Lord of the Flies.”
  • The exploration of the human capacity for evil and the blurred line between civilization and savagery.
  • The role of fear and the impact of isolation on human behavior.
  • The implications of power struggles and the consequences of unchecked authority.



Lord of the Flies by William Golding serves as a cautionary tale, exploring the delicate balance between civilization and savagery. Through the characters’ experiences on the isolated island, Golding confronts the dark side of human nature and the potential for chaos when societal structures break down. The novel’s enduring themes and rich symbolism continue to resonate with readers, provoking discussions about the fragility of civilization and the capacity for both good and evil within us all.

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