Student Notes: I, Claudius – Book by Robert Graves

I, Claudius book notes

Student Notes – I, Claudius by Robert Graves


I, Claudius by Robert Graves is a compelling historical novel that brings to life the tumultuous reigns of the Roman emperors Augustus, Tiberius, and Caligula. Published in 1934, the book takes the form of an autobiography written by Claudius, the fourth Roman Emperor. These comprehensive student notes provide an in-depth analysis of the novel, including its introduction, setting, historical context, characters, plot summary, key themes and symbolism, as well as analysis and discussion points, offering a deeper understanding of Graves’ masterful portrayal of the Roman Empire.



  • The story is set in Ancient Rome, primarily during the reigns of Emperor Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD), Emperor Tiberius (14 AD – 37 AD), and Emperor Caligula (37 AD – 41 AD).
  • The narrative spans various locations, including Rome, Capri, and various Roman provinces.


Historical Context:

  • I, Claudius explores a crucial period in Roman history known as the Julio-Claudian dynasty. It delves into the lives and reigns of significant historical figures such as Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, and Claudius.
  • The novel provides insights into the inner workings of the Roman Empire, its political intrigues, power struggles, and the effects of the emperors’ actions on the citizens.




  • The protagonist and narrator of the story. Claudius is a physically disabled and intellectually underestimated member of the imperial family. Through his astute observations and cunning, he survives the dangerous political landscape and eventually becomes Emperor.


  • The first Roman Emperor and step-grandfather of Claudius. Augustus establishes the Julio-Claudian dynasty and lays the foundation for the Roman Empire.


  • Augustus’ wife and mother of Tiberius. Livia is a manipulative and influential figure who orchestrates much of the political intrigue within the imperial family.


  • The second Roman Emperor and step-son of Augustus. Tiberius is a complex character torn between his desire for power and his aversion to the responsibilities of ruling.


Plot Summary:

  • I, Claudius follows the life of Claudius, an unlikely member of the imperial family. Despite his physical disabilities, Claudius possesses a keen intellect and chronicles the rise and fall of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. The narrative explores the political maneuverings, betrayals, and scandals that plague the empire as Claudius navigates the treacherous world of Roman politics.


Key Themes and Symbolism:

Power and Corruption:

  • The novel explores the corrupting nature of power and the lengths individuals will go to secure and maintain it. It depicts the damaging effects of absolute power on both the rulers and the society they govern.

Fate and Destiny:

  • The concept of fate plays a significant role in the narrative. Characters are shaped by their predetermined destinies, highlighting the inability to escape the forces that govern their lives.

Historical Revisionism:

  • Graves challenges traditional historical accounts by presenting a revisionist perspective through the unreliable narrator, Claudius. The novel questions the authenticity and reliability of historical sources and the manipulation of historical narratives.

Individual versus Society:

  • The tension between personal desires and societal expectations is a recurring theme. Characters must navigate the constraints of their positions within society, often sacrificing personal happiness for the greater good.


Analysis and Discussion Points:

  • The portrayal of women in the Roman Empire and their limited agency within the patriarchal society.
  • The role of family dynamics and inheritance in the struggle for power.
  • The depiction of physical disability and its influence on societal perceptions and expectations.
  • The exploration of Roman religion and its intersections with political power.
  • The use of historical sources and the challenges of reconstructing the past.



I, Claudius by Robert Graves offers a captivating journey through the political landscape of Ancient Rome. Through the eyes of the often-overlooked Claudius, readers gain insight into the complexities of power, the treacherous nature of politics, and the enduring impact of the Roman Empire. Graves’ masterful storytelling and meticulous attention to historical detail make I, Claudius an essential read for anyone interested in Roman history and the human condition.

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