1984 by George Orwell – Student Notes

1984 book cover

Student Notes – 1984 (Nineteen Eighty-Four) by George Orwell


George Orwell’s dystopian novel, 1984 (Nineteen Eighty-Four), presents a chilling vision of a totalitarian society where individualism is suppressed, and Big Brother’s regime exerts complete control over its citizens. Set in a future world dominated by perpetual war and constant surveillance, this set of student notes provides an in-depth exploration of the key elements, themes, and characters in the novel, along with analysis and discussion points for further examination.


  • Oceania: One of the three superstates that rule the world in the novel, controlled by the Party.
  • Airstrip One: Formerly known as Great Britain, it serves as the primary setting of the story, specifically London.
  • Ministry of Truth (Minitrue): The Party’s propaganda machine, responsible for rewriting historical records.
  • Ministry of Love (Miniluv): The center of the Party’s enforcement of loyalty and torture.
  • Proles: The working-class citizens who are not closely monitored by the Party.


  • Winston Smith: The protagonist, a member of the Outer Party who begins to rebel against the Party’s regime.
  • Julia: Winston’s lover, a young woman who shares his rebellious spirit.
  • O’Brien: A high-ranking member of the Inner Party, who poses as a rebel to entrap Winston.
  • Big Brother: The omnipresent figurehead and symbol of the Party’s absolute power.
  • Emmanuel Goldstein: The Party’s public enemy number one, whose existence is used to maintain fear and control.
  • Mr. Charrington: The seemingly friendly old man who runs an antique shop, later revealed as a member of the Thought Police.

Plot Summary:

  • Part 1: Introduction to Winston’s life in Oceania and his growing disillusionment with the Party’s control. His secret acts of rebellion and his relationship with Julia.
  • Part 2: Winston and Julia’s affair, their discovery, and subsequent torture by the Party.
  • Part 3: Winston’s re-education and final submission to the Party’s ideology.
  • Themes: Totalitarianism, Surveillance, Language and Propaganda, Individualism vs. Conformity, Reality and Memory.

Key Themes and Symbols:

  • Totalitarianism: The Party’s complete control over every aspect of citizens’ lives, suppressing individuality and independent thought.
  • Surveillance: The omnipresent telescreens, hidden microphones, and Thought Police that monitor and punish even the slightest dissent.
  • Language and Propaganda: Newspeak, the Party’s official language, and the manipulation of language to control and restrict freedom of thought.
  • Individualism vs. Conformity: Winston’s struggle to maintain his sense of self and individuality in a society that demands complete conformity.
  • Reality and Memory: The Party’s manipulation of historical records to control the present and erase any opposition, as well as Winston’s journey to preserve his own memories.

Analysis and Discussion Points:

  • Analyze the role of the Party’s slogans, such as “War is Peace, Freedom is Slavery, Ignorance is Strength,” in maintaining control.
  • Discuss the significance of the proles in the novel and their potential for rebellion.
  • Explore the power dynamics between Winston and O’Brien and the complex nature of their relationship.
  • Analyze the role of technology and surveillance in the novel and its relevance to contemporary society.
  • Discuss the importance of individualism and the preservation of memory in the face of oppressive regimes.
  • Examine the role of love and human connection as acts of resistance against the Party’s control.


1984 (Nineteen Eighty-Four) serves as a cautionary tale, warning against the dangers of totalitarianism, surveillance, and the erosion of individual freedom. Through its thought-provoking themes, memorable characters, and powerful narrative, the novel prompts readers to reflect on the nature of power, control, and the importance of preserving human dignity in the face of oppression. By exploring the student notes provided, readers can delve deeper into the intricate layers of Orwell’s masterpiece, stimulating critical thinking and fostering meaningful discussions about the complexities of society and the preservation of individual autonomy.

Get Paperback or Kindle version of the book <–